if I'm not mistaken your picture shows mosfets, transistors and thyristors.
From an electronics point of view these are all active components.
Electronics has what is called fundamental passive components those are resistor, capacitor and inductor but according to Leon Chua there is a missing fundamental component called a memristor.
I'm guessing this is what's going to be the next big thing in electronics, it can do persistent high speed random access memory for computers, but also act as a component that can be used for storing data and performing calculations at the same time. So we might get computers that will just pause operation when electricity is lost and resume operation when electricity comes back without loosing any data. This will make a lot of systems that use computers cheaper simpler and more reliable. It will also enable shrinking the circuitry needed for machine learning algorithms and it will be possible for to you have a machine learning accelerator chip in your computer that is decently capable at a low cost. Image and audio manipulation will get easier, video-games can have more clever non-player-characters, programs that need a lot of configuration will need fewer parameters to be set by the user. And if we are lucky widely available ML-chips will reach people that can figure out how to make program compilers more intelligent so we get faster and less buggy programs
So you are thinking along the lines how transistors replaced vacuum tubes, which replaced mechanical logic-relays.
Yes there might be one more step, there is speculative physics about doing subatomic computers, sometimes this is called programmable matter or dimensional computers. But the machine for sub-molecular fabrication is probably going to be so big that it can't fit on earth.
Less futuristic is making semiconductors from carbon instead of silicon because those run at higher temperatures and clock-speeds which shrinks the "support components" for electronics like power-supplies or cooling, and more clock speed means faster computing at least as long as energy supply is not an issue.