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 No.2401[Reply]

>>2866
Human beings have an innate need to have control over their lives, and also to feel as if the people around them facilitate the sense of control. As an anarchist, I believe that, for example, workplaces ought to be owned and run democratically by their workers, because this kind of economic arrangement, called workers self-management, meets the human needs of the workers for autonomy. It seems very unusual to suggest that meeting the innate human need for autonomy is somehow contrary to human nature when we have reason to believe that people having autonomy is associated with positive psychological outcomes. Being trained for compliance not only undermines people's autonomy but also reduces their creative and intellectual faculties. Another study found that the use of controlling teaching methods makes children more prone to helpless behavior, and this interferes with their performance. We can look further at her hierarchy affects people by considering the impact of competition on human relationships. Hierarchical systems, by their very nature, create centers of power. These centers of power may or may not be treated as scarce resources that people have to compete with each other to obtain. Indeed, capitalist societies valorize the notion that individuals ought to compete with each other for the acquisition of wealth and resources. Alfie Kohn writes,
>In the workplace, one tries to remain at friendly terms with one's colleagues, but there is guardedness, a part of the self held in reserve. Even when no rivalry exists at the moment, one never knows whom one will have to compete against next week.

Edward Deci contrasts autonomous motivation and controlled motivation as follows,
>Autonomous motivation really means to do something with a full sense of willingness, volition, endorsement of the activity. It's having a sense of "this is what I want to be doing now. This is what I choose to be doing now". The experience that goes along with what we call controlled motivation is that I'm feeling pressured and intense about it. "Those forces are operating on me and making me do this", for instance.

One study looked at the relationship between autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and the outcome of interpersonal therapy for recurrent depression. It found that,

>In the entire sample, both the therapeu
Post too long. Click here to view the full text.
25 posts and 3 image replies omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3086

>>3085
At this point I'm pretty sure that anon is a teenager who decided he wanted to be a communist so he read a handful of short articles and thinks we know what lens he's using when he takes the negative positions itt. Upon being correctly dismissed for failing to present any logical case for his position he doubled down with obtuse examples that make sense from his frame of reference but have left us mystified because he never really elaborated on what he means by "competition" as it pertains to the OP or why every analysis of human interaction has to specifically reference propagation of the species.

Hopefully in the future he reads more theory because the path of contrarianism leads more easily to reactionary thought.
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 No.3087

>>3079
>social power imbalances that exist outside of material conditions within the bourgeoisie - proletarian paradigm
but from those posts it seems like “hierarchy” is just a system of privileges. privileges are really just your rights to interact with certain items in a certain way. that’s the whole basis of property. which puts it under the Marxist definition of class.
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 No.3089

>>3058
>>3080
>>3082
This is the type of person who uses "anarkiddie" unironically. Take a good look so that you know what kind of galactic intellect you're up against.
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 No.3090

>>3089
>galactic intellect
Nothing i said is hard to grasp, actually. OP argues that hierarchy prevents the full potential of humans and is therefore in contradiction to their nature. He ignores that individuals may benefit from supporting a hierarchy that is detrimental to society as a whole. In such a scenario there is no contradiction between human nature and the negative consequences thereof. The only way such a scenario can not exist is if selection operates not on the level of the individual, but that of the collective.
>>3086
>but have left us mystified because he never really elaborated on what he means by "competition"
Why am i asked to specify a term that OP used before me? It's fine if he uses it, but if greentext it then i suddenly have to "define" it? Get that shit out of here faggot.
>or why every analysis of human interaction has to specifically reference propagation of the species
If you talk about human nature and "key psychological needs" while coming up with a model that doesn't include evolution you are a brainlet, plain and simple. Not to mention that OP never specified why "competence, relatedness, and autonomy" are the end all be all of human nature. Selective sourcefagging.
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 No.3092

>>3087
Forgive me for answering your question with more questions, but do you consider the leaders of the vanguard party to be proletarians? Would you say that they have more agency/autonomy than workers, the same because they represent the class, or less because they have to realize the ideals of a class that may not best represent their material interests?


File: 1608528126251.png ( 398.23 KB , 598x566 , tweet1.png )

 No.1835[Reply]

but even if it's not, is this something that's possible? how do you develop the hermeneutics to read this fast?
9 posts omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.2023

>>1835
WTF, you don't read at least 100 pages of information everyday? Repent, sinners. No wonder the civilization has decayed so much. Cease all the unnecessary normie activity everyday, instead focus on attain wizardhood
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 No.2031

>>1835
skimming
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 No.3046

>>2031
Given that he wrote notes on the side of the page often, I would reckon otherwise.
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 No.3072

>>1835
You probably read an equivalent amount of content on your screen every day
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 No.3095

>>1854
I think this is one of those rare brain conditions that is actually a positive benefit. My ex was diagnosed with it, but I can't remember the name of it.


File: 1608528100441.jpg ( 186.1 KB , 1200x800 , PRIVATELOANS0717_alt1.jpg )

 No.1561[Reply]

I am an ESLer. How do I improve my English writing? My grammar, and punctuation is terrible. My writing vocabulary is terrible as well. Sometimes when I write, I take a long time because the right word or phrase is not on my mind. I have a large passive vocabulary, but I don't know how to use it, and turn it into active vocabulary.
I am looking to improve my writing ability to a level where It would be easy for me to write papers for academic journals, and conferences.
If you have any recommendations, please do post them.
14 posts omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3002

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 No.3061

>>3001
>>3002
Why learn Latin? Could I learn Greek instead?
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 No.3063

>>3061
Because Latin makes up like 80% of a our vocabulary whereas Greek only 6%? And those 6% came to us through Latin.
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 No.3066

>>1561
Might sound obvious but read more books? Including fiction (ones that are considered to be well written that is)


File: 1608527953796.jpg ( 200.47 KB , 445x565 , Hirohito_wartime(cropped).jpg )

 No.287[Reply]

Would anime today be better if Americans rightfully executed the Emperor for his war crimes after the second world war instead of blaming it all on Hideki Tojo?
1 post and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.3051

Japan surrendered. There would have been no grounds to execute the head of state.
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 No.3053

>>3051
They could have easily executed him for the war crimes he was responsible for. In fact the Americans had to do a lot to deceive the judges at the Tokyo trial into sparing his life.
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 No.3054

>>3053
Yeah. The Nazis got the worst of it in comparison, yet many of their crimes were left unpunished.
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 No.3055

What do communists do with inbred parasitic royalty?
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 No.3064

>>3055
We shoot them or make them spend the rest of their life as janitors doing it for FREE


File: 1608528245204.jpg ( 38.09 KB , 500x281 , 008787867.jpg )

 No.2980[Reply]

I've been reading a lot about classical economics, or classically-trained economists (mostly cause I live in a small town and my local library only has capital and i feel im not ready yet for that). How much classical or "mainstream" economics should I read before getting into marx and marxist theory proper?
I should mention Im only doing this in the first place cause I'm a literal brainlet when it comes to economics so I'm trying to learn basic economic concepts in order to build on later with the marxism.

Also when it comes to philosophy, should it go plato-→aristotle-→hegel–→marx? Or should I add a few more or maybe skip some? pic unrelated
3 posts omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.2987

>>2980
Depends how smart you are. Capital is pretty easy (the language of the first chapter is quite difficult though. Honestly just skip it and come back later), if you have read any classical economics go for capital right now.

If you want the most basic Marx reading I'd recommend Critique of the Gotha program, as it's very basic and easy to read. In general I find Engels/Lenin is easier to digest. To understand the philosophical background, I recommend this short read
https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1886/ludwig-feuerbach/index.htm

After this and the first 2 books the other guy recommend, I think you would be more than ready to read Capital.

But it does depend on the angle you're going for, if you're interested in philosophy, definitely read Hegel. However if you're interested in economics, as it seems, I would deem Hegel a waste of your time right now and just read the link I sent. From philosophy you need to be well acquainted with these terms though as a Marxist (start from the link I sent)
-idealism
-materialism
-dialectics
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 No.2989

>>2986
>>2987
thanks for effortposts comrades
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 No.2996

>>2980
In regards to philosophy, I'm a layman myself, but please don't start with the Greeks it's a meme. They are not relevant anymore the few things that are relevant get repeated and explained by modern philosophers enough. Start with the young Hegelian: Marx, Engels, Feuerbach and Stirner. And from there on you can read whatever you like. A personal recommendation from me would be the early Frankfurt school and Bakunin, but it's just what I enjoy the most.
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 No.3040

Read Smith, then Capital. Nothing else is needed IMO.
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 No.3062

I asked this on /leftypol/ but I think I'll get an answer here:

Is there a consensus on which English translation of Capital is best? I have a paper version of the Moore and Aveling translation but I'm considering getting a different one (Fowkes I guess), since this one is too bulky and I've heard about quite a few translation errors in it. Is it worth being picky over the mistranslations? I'm just worried that I'll fail to notice the errors and then pick up a wrong interpretation of Marx.


 No.2050[Reply]

According to Gulag Archipelago, torture, rape, and killing of peasants and political dissidents was common practice in soviet gulags. Was this really the case?
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 No.2309

>>2056
The irony is that Stalin's paranoia about the fragility of the communist project is what made the project so fragile.
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 No.2316

>>2309
Considering that it lasted more than 2x his life-time and was the second world superpower of its time… nope.
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 No.2339

>>2316
Considering that people starved in the 30s and eventually it failed… yep.
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 No.2340

>>2339
Considering natural and regular famines were eliminated (along with homelessness, illiteracy, etc.) and only came back after US neoliberal sabotage… nope.

The Soviet Union wasn't perfect, but if you compare it with most third world government then AND now, it was surprisingly functional and much better. Are people who criticize the Soviet Union all rich cunts from the third world and fist world middle upper class? Nigga, they're kidnapping our sisters and daughters and selling them, we're getting shot at on the regular, either by "clean cops", regular dirty cops, drug dealers, by petty thieves who are usually kids, by politicians who don't like "activists", we're getting run over by cars, dying from shitty food (because healthy food is expensive), overwork, stress, anxiety, lack of access to medicine and medics. All these things did not exist for the majority of the people in the soviet union for the vast majority of its existence.

Yeah maybe Stalin was a paranoid cunt and a totalitarian leader, but ffs, the quality of life was much much better than it is now for MOST OF US. Fucking privileged pricks, I swear.
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 No.3060

>>2054
> a better critique of the soviet gulags and other abuses under the Soviet system, without falling to anti-communist propaganda, I recommend The Revolution Betrayed by Leon Trotsky.
LOL the same Trotsky who referred to Stalin as an uncultured beast… push off


File: 1608528123163.jpg ( 47.84 KB , 474x355 , galaxy brain.jpg )

 No.1806[Reply]

Is IQ even real? Can it reliably measure someone's "intelligence"? What even is intelligence, and is it really primarily genetic? Is IQ really tied to race?

I keep seeing a lot of conflicting opinions on this but I'm too much of a brainlet to find a satisfying answer.
2 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.1816

>>1815
Yes, look at your own map, most blue countries/regions are descended from Europe: Canada, US, Argentina, Europe, Russia, Australia. China and Japan are outliers, if anything it proves that one can train for the test, and that is what they do, they literally train how to take these standardised tests. Both China and Japan have cultures where academic success is respected and something that people strive for, so of course those countries will have higher test AVERAGES, because there are simply more of them who do well.
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 No.1818

IQ is a bit meh. Of course, there are various aspects to what is considered intelligence; so even if you have good measures for the aspects, it's somewhat arbitrary how you weight them. Extremely bad results can tell you whether somebody is disabled. We know IQ tests aren't perfect, the weighting issue aside. There are programs for solving IQ tests, yet this doesn't give us a general simulation of human intelligence.

The way IQ talk is used in political discussion – as a cause, not as both cause and effect – is asinine. If you are malnourished and live in a polluted area, you get brain-damage from that, no matter how great your genetic potential is.

There is some correlation between very good IQ results and doing well in school. But it doesn't make sense to obsess over two people being ten or fifteen points apart. IQ test results are NOT stable over life, that's a big lie that I suspect people tell who know better and who want to score above the herd. You can definitely practice for these tests and improve by twenty to thirty points. I don't think you can get from 80 to 150 though.

>>1810
Your argument about test-making and solving assumes a symmetry that isn't there. I can create a vocabulary test against a dictionary without having perfect memory about what's in the dictionary myself. I can set a higher time-limit for myself as a test-maker than I allow for the test-taker and I can allow myself to use certain tools that I don't allow the test-takers to use. I can make very hard puzzles about shoving pieces around by going backwards from the solution, that doesn't mean I can solve puzzles of similar complexity myself. It's easier to multiply prime numbers than to be shown the result of that multiplication and having to find the prime numbers from that.
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 No.3036

>>1810
>IQ was designed in the same way, European (white) males are taken to be the standard against which others are tested.
I’m not incredibly pro IQ or anything but this is such a bullshit argument. IQ was created by the school board to identify students with learning disabilities.
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 No.3042

File: 1608528253355.jpeg ( 7.94 KB , 190x293 , mmm.jpeg )

>>3036
>IQ was created by the school board to identify students with learning disabilities.
The original IQ test as created by Binet, yes, it was meant to identify children with learning disabilities. But then the Americans took it, and created the Stanford-Binet scale, among others. That is the IQ test we talk about and know today.

I'm not talking out of my ass, I got my info from pic related. It's a good book and you should read it.

>Your argument about test-making and solving assumes a symmetry that isn't there.

My point is that the test (actually, in the beginning there were two tests, for literate and illiterate people, it's actually a very interesting story, but I digress) was designed in a way that it presented people with problems and then timed them on how fast they're able to complete the tasks, if at all. Now, why would the test-creator assign tasks that he himself cannot solve?

The original IQ test asked things about days of the week, about American culture, asked them about radio, etc. basically, it tested white, middle-class intelligence. Poor whites also did poorly on the tests. The test didn't test "intelligence", but integration into American society, it asked questions that the test-makers knew the answer to.

And I ask again, how can someone ask a question they themselves can't answer and then judge someone on the validity of that answer?
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 No.3043

>>3042
>how can someone ask a question they themselves can't answer and then judge someone on the validity of that answer?
That question was already answered ITT, you are just too dumb to get it :/


 No.2547[Reply]

I don't know much about Imperialism. Can someone summarise the key differences between the Luxemburgian theory of Imperialism and the ML theory of Imperialism?
Where do they differ and which of them is, in your mind, more accurate?
I have unfortunately not the time to read "Die Akkumulation des Kapitals." or "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" as I have to do a lot of reading for uni at the time and my tbr list is already way too long.
It´s a topic I'm really interested in and I would appreciate it if you could help me out here.
Maybe you know a shorter, more accessible introductional book on imperialism.
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 No.3011

>>2547
>industrial capital merges together with bank capital, creates financial capital
>creating of trusts, monopolies, bourgeois unions, and so on
>trusts destroy and choke the competition, capital centralizes even further
>centralization means monopoly over natural resources
>regional goes national, national goes international
>biggest firms own the capital in other countries, exploits further their resources and labor force
>world is now partitioned between the most developed capitalist states. further repartitions will cause wars
>imperialism

Correct me if I missed something, comrades.
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 No.3012

>>3011
You missed the part about the banking hegemony where countries are invaded when they stop using the dominant financial transaction system. You know like in Libya the first thing the counter revolutionaries did was create a new central bank to undo the Gold-dinar that Gaddafi had implemented. I think this is a relatively recent development of imperialism.
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 No.3017

>>3012
Monopolies became entrenched around the late 1800s before the formation of our modern credit system. A credit system which Lenin nor Marx could not commentate on as the the gold standard had not been dropped in place of the US dollar yet. Libya's threat to the US dollar would lower the demand for the US dollar and weaken its purchasing power. The US has a trade deficit, thus its dollars flood foreign markets, particularly those which it extracts value from. Its military opens up new markets and creates more capital in the process of capital accumulation.
Michael Hudson explains this much better than I can, and he is foremost the leading economist in formulation of American imperialism and the debt economy.


File: 1608528241467.png ( 28.54 KB , 677x492 , Linear_subspaces_with_shad….png )

 No.2952[Reply]

-Linear Algebra General-
Welcome to /LA/ comrades. In this thread we will work together more or less in line with the MIT OCW Linear Algebra syllabus.
The OCW page can be found here: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-06-linear-algebra-spring-2010/index.htm
On the OCW page you can find the calendar, recommended readings, lectures, and problem sets and exams. The lectures are done by Gilbert Strang who also wrote the recommended textbook. I think he is a very good instructor and I believe you should certainly give his lectures a watch if you are interested in learning more.
The Calendar is divided into 40 sessions which correspond to 40 assigned readings and lectures. There are 10 problem sets and 4 exams with all the solutions online. This thread will serve as a place to discuss lectures, readings, and, probably most usefully, ask other anons for help on problem sets or exams.
6 posts and 1 image reply omitted. Click reply to view.
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 No.2969

>>2968
Thank you anon this was actually very helpful. I appreciate you taking the time to lay this out for me.
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 No.2970

>>2969
You're very welcome, I won't be doing the course but will check here regularly to help the best I can!
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 No.3006

What's the point of learning this bourgeois mathematics? How will it ever help the working class?
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 No.3008

>>3006
This is the language of how the planet is *actually* run. Without this we would never be able to run world wide distribution networks (read Cockshott)
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 No.3010

>>3006
I hope you're baiting lol


File: 1608528064882.jpg ( 305.02 KB , 1741x2560 , 81LOxJ qS9L.jpg )

 No.1239[Reply]

I'm looking for book recommendations on Operaismo, Operation Gladio and the Marshall Plan. If anyone has suggestions, then it would be much appreciated.
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 No.1249

File: 1608528066309.pdf ( 2.88 MB , NATOs_secret_armies.pdf )

here's the obvious one
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 No.2993

>>1239
Are these letters soyfacing?
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 No.2995

>>2993
Brain damage as a result of forced memes.
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 No.2998

File: 1608528247303-0.pdf ( 9.97 MB , Tim Weiner - Legacy of Ash….pdf )

File: 1608528247303-1.pdf ( 3.5 MB , William Blum - Killing Hop….pdf )

File: 1608528247303-2.pdf ( 2.04 MB , William Blum - Rogue State….pdf )

>>1239
These are not books entirely about what you requested but there is good info on Operation Gladio and the Marshall Plan in these PDFs
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 No.3003

>>2993
someone make a tronti soyfacing wojak
>>2998
thank you! I really appreciate it


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